Food Dictionary

Jack Bean Seed
Also known as "horse bean seed." This bean looks like a very large lima bean. The pod is inedible unless the plant is very young. Avoid pods bulging with beans as this is an indication of age.
Jackfruit
A large fruit related to the fig and the breadfruit. This fruit, indigenous to Africa, Brazil, and Southeast Asia, which weighs up to 100 pounds, is used in desserts.
Jackrabbit
A hare native to North America; originally called "jackass rabbit" because of its long ears; five-pound jackrabbits are about one year old and are best for roasting; the meat is dark, rich and more gamey than rabbit.
Jalapeno cheese
Asadero cheese blended and molded with jalapeno chiles; jalapeno jack may be substituted.
Jalapeno peppers
The dark green jalapeno is the unripe version of the red which often ships with white veins on the outer skin. This does not affect the flavor or quality. They are about 3 inches long, with a rounded tip. They ripen to red and range from hot to very hot, the smallest being the hottest; they take their name from Jalapa, the capital of Veracruz, Mexico; sold fresh, canned or pickled; when dried and smoked, they are called chipotle peppers. Delicious when roasted, stewed or pickled; both are a delight stuffed with cheese or peanut butter and grilled. Jalapeno Poppers became popular in the 90s. Heat ranges from hot to very hot.
Jam
Thick syrupy mixture of fruit and sugar.
Jamaican Breadnut
The seeds of a tree from the mulberry family that is grown in Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. These seeds are boiled, ground into flour and made into bread. Also called "Ramons."
Jambalaya
A spicy Cajun rice dish from Louisiana with ham, sausage, chillies and tomatoes.
Jamberry
A small fruit, also called the "tomatillo," that is related to the tomato and the cape gooseberry. Their flavor is said to resemble a cross between lemon, apple, and herbs. Used in guacamole and many sauces.
Jambolan
An olive-sized fruit of a tropical evergreen that is cultivated throughout Southeast Asia to the Philippines. The several varieties vary in sweetness and range from white to dark purple. Also called the "Java plum."
Japanese fish sauce
A powerful sauce, made of small fermented fish, used sparingly as a flavouring and as a condiment.
Japanese Gelatin
A tasteless dried seaweed that is used as a thickening agent. Sold in blocks, powder, or stands. Agar can be used in place of gelatin, but less is required. Also called "agar" and "kanten."
Japanese Horseradish
A horseradish that is dried, powdered, and made into a pale green paste with an extremely potent flavor. Often mixed with soy sauce and served with sushi, sashimi, and other Japanese specialties. Also called "wasabi."
Japanese Medlar
This pear-shaped fruit has a juicy, crisp flesh and a sweetly tart flavor. Used as a snack, in salads, and in chicken and duck dishes. Also called "loquat" and "Japanese Plum."
Japanese Plum
This pear-shaped fruit has a juicy, crisp flesh and a sweetly tart flavor. Used as a snack, in salads, and in chicken and duck dishes. Also called "loquat" and "Japanese Medlar."
Japanese Soba Noodles
The brownish buckwheat soba noodles from Japan are becoming more popular as their beguiling nutty flavor and nutritional value engage the attention of Western cooks. Rich in protein and fiber, they are most commonly served cold with a dipping sauce or hot in soups. Soba noodles are extraordinarily versatile and lend themselves to salads and stir-fried dishes as well. You can find soba noodles flavored with green tea, lemon zest, or black sesame seeds. For the best-quality check out the Japanese brands. To cook boil fresh noodles 1 to 1 1/2 minutes or dried ones 4 to 4 1/2 minutes.
Japanese Soy sauce
Chinese soy is very different from Japanese. Japanese soys contain much more wheat flour and sugar. Buy in larger quantities in a Japanese market. It is cheaper that way and it will keep well if kept sealed.
Japanese White Radish
This radish has a sweet flavor and a crisp, juicy white flesh. Used raw, in salads, in stir-fries, and as a garnish. Also called "Daikon."
Jardiniere
A French term that refers to dishes garnished with vegetables.
Jarlsberg cheese
A mild semi-firm Swiss-style cheese from Norway with a mild, slightly sweet flavor.
Jasmine rice
Fragrant long grain rice from Thailand that is distinctly aromatic when cooked. The length of each grain is four to five times its width.
Java Plum
An olive-sized fruit of a tropical evergreen that is cultivated throughout Southeast Asia to the Philippines. The several varieties vary in sweetness and range from white to dark purple. Related to the rose apple and the pitanga.
Javelina
Collared peccary; small wild pig found in the Southwest.
Jellied Beef Loaf
Cooked meat specialty -- Cooked beef, shredded and molded with gelatin, and cooked in loaf or roll. Also available are Jellied Tongue, Jellied Corned Beef and Jellied Veal Loaf.
Jellied Corned Beef
Cooked meat specialty, made from precooked, lean corned beef which is shredded and mixed with pure gelatin, formed into a loaf and cooked.
Jellyroll
A thin sheet of sponge cake layered with jelly and then rolled up.
Jerky
Meat that is cut into long, narrow, strips then dried. Beef is the most commonly used meat for jerky. Also known as "Jerked Meat."
Jerusalem Artichoke
Not to be confused with the globe artichoke, the Jerusalem artichoke belongs to the sunflower family and it is the plant’s underground tubers that are eaten. They are rather knobbly and irregular in shape, with a pale brown or purply-red skin. Scrub them and boil or steam until tender and then peel. If a recipe calls for peeled Jerusalem artichokes, peel them and drop into acidulated water until ready to use. Can be used as a main ingredient or side serving. Often baked and cooked in soups.
Jew's Ear
A fungus that resembles a human ear. It is found almost exclusively on dead elder tree branches. Used in many Chinese dishes and is also know as "Chinese fungus." Normally dried before use.
Jicama
Large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and a white crunchy flesh with a texture similar to water chestnut. It has a sweet, nutty flavor and can be eaten raw or cooked. Also called "Mexican potato."
Jobo
The edible fruit of a tropical American tree that is plentiful in northeastern Brazil. It is bright yellow, oval, averages an inch long, and features a soft, juicy sub-acid pulp surrounding a large seed. Also called "yellow mombin."
Jocoque
Mexican sour cream that has equal or less fat content than American sour cream. Also referred to as salted buttermilk, although thicker. Its flavors range from mildly tangy to refreshingly sharp.
John Dory
Found in European waters, this white-fleshed sea fish, also known as St Peter's fish, is an odd-looking creature with an oval, flat body and a large, spiny head. The flesh is delicate and mild and can be cooked in a variety of ways including grilling, sauteing and poaching.
Joint
Prime cut of meat for roasting; to divide meat, game or poultry into individual pieces.
Jugged
Meat or wild game dishes, such as jugged hare, which is stewed in a covered pot.
Jujube
A small, hard, gelatinous candy with a fruit-flavor. Also refers to a Chinese jujube, a red, olive-sized fruit with a leathery skin with a prune-like flavor.
Julienne
Vegetables or citrus zest shredded or cut into thin matchsticks. The julienne is cooked in butter in a covered pan until quite soft and then used as a garnish, especially for soups and consommes. Raw vegetables to be served as an hors d'oeuvre can also be cut as a julienne.
Juniper berries
The darkish berries of the juniper tree provide the main flavouring for gin. These spicy, aromatic berries are also used, fresh or dried, crushed or whole, to flavour casseroles, marinades and stuffings, and complement pork, rabbit and beef, especially pork pates. They can also be used in sweet dishes such as fruit cake.
Jus
This French word is roughly the equivalent of 'juice', but it has more specific meanings in French cookery: a. the unthickened juices from a piece of roast meat
b. the juice squeezed from raw vegetables or fruit